Properties and types
Rice is one of the five basic food species for the human race and is the main cultivated plant on earth. It belongs to the Gramineae, the family of Monocotyledons , and is called Oryza Sativa. In relation to generic characters and to the origins, the Oryza sativa is suddvide in the japonica group, with more rounded grain, and in the indica variety group, with more elongated grain.
Each kilogram of paddy rice, gives about 600 grams of edible rice. It's a highly digestible food and able to regulate the intestinal flora, thanks to the proteins contained in rice grains which are qualitatively superior to those of any other cereal. Its calories are equal to 130 for each 100 grams of product and is rich in many nutrients. It helps eliminate swelling; if is brown, it fights constipation and has a lower glycemic index than pasta.
The nutritional properties of rice are very important, because this food is rich in nutrients very important for our body. More than 90% is made from carbohydrates; proteins represent approximately 7.5 % and fat 1.3%.
The classification of the types of rice in Italy changed radically in 2017, until then the one defined in 1958 was adopted (the previous types were: comune, semifino, fino and superfino). Today, the difference is based on the size of the grain, which corresponds, in proportion to the water absorption time, to the cooking resistance of the rice.
Originario or round rice
An Italian rice with grains with a minimum length of 5.2 mm and a length / width ratio of less than 2 mm. It is a rice, therefore, with round and small grains that quickly absorb liquids and cook quickly. Round rice varieties are great for rice-based desserts and soups.
Medium grain rice
A rice whose grains are longer than 5.2 mm up to a maximum of 6 mm and length / width ratio below 3 mm. It is the perfect variety for arancini and timbales, it lends itself to double cooking while maintaining a certain structure. For example, vialone nano rice and Venere rice.
Long rice A
Rice whose grains have a length greater than 6 millimeters and a length / width ratio between 2 and 3 millimeters. It is the rice suited to the preparation of risottos because the grains hold very well the rather long cooking and has a level of starch that makes it perfect to be creamed. For example, carnaroli rice, arborio and baldo rice.
Long rice B
Rice whose grains are longer than 6 millimeters and a length / width ratio greater than 3 millimeters. Its shape is very reminiscent of Asian rice and is used in the kitchen for salads and side dishes. For example thaybonnet rice.